PDF | The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa is a book written by Sir Fredrick Lugard (the first colonial Governor General of Nigeria). It forms or constructs. Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard GCMG, CB, DSO, PC (22 January – 11 April ), known as Sir Frederick Lugard . Lugard’s The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa was published in and discussed indirect. Born to an English family in India in , Frederick Lugard rose to His The Dual Mandate, first published in , became a handbook for all.

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This helps in reinforcing colonial power relations and stabilizing them. The analysis in this paper is majorly concentrated on the chapter four of the book. Following the Fulani jihad ofthe hitherto individualistic and competing Hausa states lugare united under a strong centralized theocratic state known lugagd the Sokoto Caliphate. In particular “our African dependencies” occurs six times. But the established traditional route to Machakos was a treacherous journey through the large Taru Desert—93 miles of scorching dust bowl.

Statements disembodied like those in the examples present reality and textual representation as indistinguishable.

In this mabdate, Lugard outlined the reasons and methods that he recommended for the colonisation of Africa by Britain. Territories acquired through conquest, cession, settlement, or annexation were designated as Crown Colonies. Skip to main content. By the action of the Sultan in suppressing his people, the obsequiousness of the emir of Katagum, and to a large extent, the admittance of the African educated elite to the superiority of the colonial mission, the process of interpellation and the acceptance of the imperium have begun to be accomplished.

The Poetics and the Politics of Exhibiting other Lkgard. This can also happen in representation when you displace, reduce and dissimulate identities, sexuality, ethnicity and individuality into an omnibus luugard generic terminology. Frederickson sees this profiling as using the physiological and anatomical differences especially in cranial features and facial angles to explain mental and physical inferiority. Mnadate Northern Nigeria, therefore, Lugard found the necessary centralized political structure and preexiting taxation and court systems critical for indirect rule to work.

Since he was childless, the barony became extinct. The subaltern, in this case, is already marginalized due to lack of access to discourse. It was a concept in which existing African traditional political institutions were preserved and incorporated into the colonial administrative system for local governance.


The binary is thus the presence of African culture tge into absence of superior dua. Negation of the substance of the subaltern There is here a negation of history and civilization. Through the ages the African has evolved no organised religious creed, and though some tribes appear to believe in a deity, the religious sense seldom rises above pantheistic animism, and seems more often to take the form of a vague dread of the supernatural.

The black image in the white mind: Retrieved December 31, from Encyclopedia. En route, Lugard was instructed to enter into treaties with local tribes and build forts in order to secure safe passage for future IBEAC expeditions. Reflections on the history of an idea.

Dual Mandate, Africa

It clearly makes a case for control. Although, the Yoruba possessed a centralized political system, it was less autocratic than the Sokoto Caliphate. First, there is a clear attribution of character shown with timelessness.

Discours on colonialism discourse sur le colonialisme, engl. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. Perhaps the most distinctive external characteristic— much more reliable than that of colour—by which the degree of Negro blood may be gauged, is the hair growth on the head and face, varying from the woolly head and smooth face of the pure negro, to the straight hair and bearded face of the Asiatic.

Infantilization of the subaltern Infantlization happens when the subaltern is represented as a baby or a child that needs parental care and guidance. According to Downing and Locke the present tense is the unmarked tense which cognitively expresses situations which have immediate reality, i. Decentralization at all levels of government, with a strong coordinating authority in the center, allowed for greater efficiency.

Such in brief are the peoples for whose welfare we are responsible in British tropical Africa. Functional and cognitive perspectives.

Full text of “The dual mandate in British tropical Africa”

Fairclough argues that texts as parts of social events have causal effects in terms of bringing about changes. Hulme rightly observes that one of the ways in which ideologies operate is by passing off partial accounts as the whole story.

The impact of time perspectives on the dynamics of change. We are, I argue, primed by each encounter so that when we come to use the word or syllable or combination of words we characteristically replicate the contexts in which we had previously encountered it.


The data is analyzed using critical discourse analysis to demystify and unravel the mask of objectivity and the ideological significance of the style involved in the text. He also saw state-sponsored colonisation as a way to protect missionaries, local chiefs and local people from each other, as well as from foreign powers. The production of the text, The Dual Mandate, in this analysis, for example, is based on the hegemonic duap attained by Lord Lugard as a colonial senior officer the Governor General of colonial Nigeria to be specific and, ipso facto, a voice of the imperium in British Nigeria, and this also gives him the wherewithal to be published.

Denial of history or luard should be seen within the larger colonial discourse as a strategy of justifying occupation.

In the southwest among the Yoruba, it encountered some problems and was less successful. History and Theory, 24 3 This is achieved in the way the mission and perception of colonial interests are objectified and mystified at the same time. Colonial discourse of such nature creates ways through which objects are formed, stabilized and reproduced as, and congealed into, beliefs and knowledges.

The goal of analyzing these discursive practices and structures, as argued by Dotyis not only to reveal essential truths that have been obscured per se, but rather to examine how certain representations underlie the production of knowledge and identities and how these representations make various courses of action possible.

Learn more mabdate citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia. His mission was to amalgamate the two colonies into one.

A relational process is handier in showing state of affairs which acquit one of the need for verifiability. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The book grounds the philosophy and ideology of the British Empire and justifies its conquests and administrative style.

The use of an ethnographic simple present may align the production of that kind of discourse to certain authoritative stance in dealing with the objects of the discourse and in how the discourse is consumed.

Therefore, effective British officers should retain their posts without undue interruptions.